What is Bariatric Surgery?
Gastric bypass and other weight loss surgeries collectively known as bariatric surgery involve making changes to your digestive system to help you lose weight. Bariatric surgery is performed when diet and exercise don't work or when you have serious health problems due to your weight.
Nutritional Status Assessment of Patients Before Bariatric Surgery;
It is important to determine the nutritional status of patients before bariatric surgery in order to arrange the post-surgery nutrition program and to manage weight loss. Therefore, patients' nutritional deficiencies, nutritional knowledge, nutritional habits, physical activity level, biochemical parameters, anthropometric measurements and psychosocial status should be evaluated before surgery. The acquisition of new eating habits through nutrition education should be established in the preoperative period. Explaining that it is possible to gain weight again, gaining lifestyle changes, teaching food consumption record keeping techniques, the necessity of physical activity, training to read labels, ensuring carbohydrate-fat-protein balance, healthy food preparation methods, gaining sufficient fluid consumption habit, meal planning and meal frequency and the use of additional vitamins, minerals and protein constitute the basic principles of nutrition education. These are important factors in the planning and implementation of the post-surgery nutrition program.
Medical Nutrition therapy in the Postoperative Period After Bariatric Surgery
Nutritional therapy after bariatric surgery varies according to the type of surgery performed. The treatment has three main goals.
1. Not to take solid and liquid foods together in meals,
2. Waiting 20-30 minutes after consuming a solid meal without eating or drinking anything. You have to wait 5 to 10 minutes after sipping of liquid if you want to take solid food.
3. Drinking slowly, sip by sip, 1 liter per day and 1.5 liters as time progresses.
The issues that patients should pay attention to after bariatric surgery;
- You should take the amount of food for one meal within 20 minutes. This will prevent the formation of nausea and vomiting and will make you feel satiated.
- When food is eaten in small amounts, the reduced place in the stomach pouch will become useful and blockage of the sensitive newly opened stomach can be prevented by chewing.
- Food should be chewed thoroughly and the amount of the food should be small.
- Proteins should preferably be eaten before carbohydrates and fats.
- Many patients have problems with red meat, tough poultry meat.
- They have difficulties in digesting starchy foods such as bread, etc., and hard vegetables and fruits such as celery, coconut.
- Some starchy products; Breakfast with wheat bran, whole grains, cereal and dried fruit, popcorn, whole grain or white bread (not fried), whole grains and large-grain soups (with noodles and vegetables) are not well tolerated. Foods to avoid are fibrous vegetables (beans, peas, celery, cabbage), raw vegetables, mushrooms, cowpea salad, french fries, tortilla, very spicy and spicy, acidic (pickle) foods and seeds. Patients cannot eat dried fruits, coconut or orange and grapefruit skins.
- Caffeine (cocoa, tea, coffee, cola drinks, etc. caffeinated beverages) should be taken in limited levels as it causes dehydration and raises LDL-cholesterol. The recommended daily caffeine amount should not exceed 300 mg. Caffeine intake should be reduced slowly. Quitting suddenly causes headache.
- If the food is sticky and soft as dry chewing gum, and fibrous, pain and indigestion can often be seen.
- Instead of red meat that is difficult to digest, the patient should avoid other protein sources and should learn to choose milk and dairy products, cheese, eggs, fish, soft chicken and turkey meat, legumes, soy protein products.
- Dumping syndrome is caused by sugar and sugary foods. It is characterized by tremors, sweating, rapid heartbeat, dizziness. Avoid foods containing too much sugar (fruit juices, sports drinks and sweets), instead of them choose fruits, milk and dairy products and vegetables with natural sugar. Complex carbohydrates should be increased (raw vegetables) and fiber should be added to the diet. Dietary protein should be increased (especially chicken and fish). Appropriate and sufficient energy should be taken and its fat ratio should be moderate.
- Patients should take water and fluids 30 minutes before and after meals. Water and liquids should not be taken with meals. If this situation is not followed, vomiting and diarrhea may occur.
- Patients feel hungry between meals. They can take snacks. They should eat less and often. Intense and excessive energy intake is not desirable. Carbonate is not allowed. It may create swelling.
- When fullness is felt, eating and drinking should always be stopped.
- Food and drinks should never be taken together.
- In order not to overeat, food and drinks should be measured before starting to eat.
- Desserts should never be eaten, carbonated sugary drinks, candy, chocolate, sweets, cakes, cookies, ice cream, sweet biscuits, honey, jam, jelly desserts should be excluded from the diet of patients.
- Always try to keep vegetable and fruit portions (1-2 tablespoons) small.
- 30 minutes of aerobic physical activity should be done every day and its difficulty should be increased after 1 month.
As a result; the patient's diet should be adequate and balanced in terms of macro and micronutrients, if insufficient oral intake takes place, then nutritional support therapy should be initiated, adequate hydration should be provided in the early period after surgery, maximizing weight loss by reducing complications such as nausea, vomiting, reflux and diarrhea. These are basic rules in nutrition.
You can ask the expert teams of Mediline Hospital Nutrition and Diet Department about nutrition before and after bariatric surgery and ask for suggestions about your problem. You can make an online appointment with our dieticians or call +90 (424) 237 11 11 for information.
Important Note: The page content is for informational purposes only. Consult our physicians for diagnosis and treatment.